Merck Index of chemicals is an extensive encyclopedia of chemicals, biologicals, and drugs containing more than 11,500 monographs. Each monograph in the authoritative medical reference source is usually a short, clear description of a particular chemical or a small collection of closely related chemicals. The scope of the entries in the Merck index covers almost all areas of chemical research.
A chemical reaction that produces specific end products can be described using one or more of the synonyms for the specific reaction. For example, the term combustion means the physical process of combining two substances that produce heat. A compound having a particular number of electrons is considered a noncombustible molecule. The examples of these include carbon dioxide, argon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, silicon, iron, sodium, boron, mercury, aluminum, bromine, and phosphorus. A combination of at least two of these chemicals is often required to achieve a desirable result.
Flammability refers to the ability of a substance to change into a gaseous form when exposed to heat or light. The most common examples of gases produced in a chemical reaction are water and hydrogen. Some gases have the potential to be combustible, such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and phosphorus. Almost all solids may undergo a phase of combustion, if they are heated to a high temperature. Examples of combustible solids include textiles, cotton, natural gas, grease, rubber, asphalt, rubber wood, and coal. A substance that is combustible has both chemical properties that allow it to spontaneously ignite and physical properties that make it vulnerable to combustion.
There are different ways in which a material can undergo chemical changes, but all changes have a chemical component. A substance with a chemical property that allows it to change into either a soluble or insoluble compound is said to have aqueous properties. Soluble chemicals are those that can dissolve in water. When aqueous chemicals are present in solution, they act as an electrolyte. An example of an aqueous substance is the salt of the blood. In order for something to be considered aqueous, it must contain a pH of less than 7.
Insoluble chemicals are substances that cannot dissolve in water but instead change into a more solid form once mixed with a liquid. This type of chemical property is usually found in metallic substances or elements. The process by which inorganic materials change into their more soluble state is called conduction. Different kinds of metal contain different number of electrons, which allows them to be easily converted from solid to semi-solid, or vice versa.
The physical properties of a chemical reaction determine how the substance will react when exposed to heat or light. Many different kinds of chemicals react differently under these conditions, with some exhibiting the characteristics of gases or liquids while some changing into clouds or turning into mist. Physical properties also depend on the types of substances involved.
Some mixtures of chemicals can be categorized based on their physical properties alone. Water, for example, can be classified as a compound or combination of compounds depending on its physical nature. If you mix water with any other liquid and heat it up, you would end up with a mixture of water and the vapor of the fuel, which would then boil. The boiling of water is a chemical reaction known as saponification. Other examples of mixtures composed of different compounds include cement, oils, fats, and different kinds of powder.
In addition to classifying mixtures based on their physical properties, classifications based on their chemical property can also be useful. A compound containing iron can be classified as ferric or ferrous. Other examples of this chemical property include boron, oxygen, silicon, phosphorus, sodium, sulphur, iodine, carbon, sulphur, bromine, nitrogen, and mercury. In a similar way, a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen would be known as hydrogen oxyoxide, and the same thing holds true for a mixture composed of sulphur and oxygen.
City Chemical is a producer of chemicals and some of them are: 1,4-Naphthoquinone, 130-15-4, Triolein, 122-32-7, Antimony Trioxide, 1309-64-4, Silver Nitrate, 7761-88-8, Aluminum Fluoride, 7784-18-1, Ammonium Iodide, 12027-06-4, Cupric Oxide, 1317-38-0, Humic Acid, 1415-93-6, Triethylsilane, 617-86-7, Zinc Chromate, 13530-65-9.
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